Wildlife is a valuable natural resource. Most farmers enjoy seeing wildlife on their farm, and many benefit economically by leasing hunting and fishing rights to sportsmen. In North Carolina, more than $1.1 billion is spent annually by hunters and fishermen alone.
Peanut fields provide both food and cover for wildlife. Quail and their docks, deer, rabbits, and other birds and mammals are attracted to peanut fields.
The value of these fields and surrounding areas as wfldlife habitats depends on the pesticides used during the growing season. Many birds can be lethally poisoned by cides applied to crop fields. SubledW poisoning can result in an animal becoming sick. Once sick, wild birds may neglect their youn& abandon their nests, and become more susceptible to predators or disease.
Most pesticides used on peanuts are not highly toxic to wildlife. However, these pesticides can affect wildlife indirectly by reducing their food and cover. Populations of gamebirds are reduced when herbicides and insecticides are intensively used. These pesticides can destroy brood cover and reduce msect and plant foods, lowering the survival rate of gamebird chicks.
Careful selection and use of pesticides, however, can lessen their impact upon wildlife. This publication (1) describes how pesticides used on peanut fields can harm wildlife and (2) describes how farmers can minimize adverse effects of pesticides on wfldlife.
Tables 1 and 2 list recommended in the North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual for use on peanuts. Table 1 rates insecticides according to their toxicities to birds, mammals, and fish. The effects of pesticides on wildlife and fish can be minimized by using the least toxic alternative. Inseticides in Table 2 are rated low, moderate, or high based on the hazard their use presents to wildlife (birds and mammals). The hazard of an insecticide is based on its toxicitv to wildlife, the way it is used, and other characteristics, such as its persistence in the environment. For example, methomyl (Lannate) is acutely toxic to birds and mammals (Table 1). However, because methomyl does not persist in the field, careful use of this chemical presents only a moderate hazard to wildlife (Table 2). Wildlife exposed to insecticides rated high may die or become sick. Insecticides rated moderate may also cause death or sickness, although death is unlikely. Pesticides rated low are unlikely to harm wildlife directly.
To reduce the danger to wildlife from granular formulations:
Several studies of aerial applications of pesticides have reported significant drift of material into nearby wildlife habitats and ponds. If it is necessary to use highly toxic insecticides, apply them with ground equipment; this will help to minimize drift and reduce the hazard to wildlife. Ground application may also allow wildlife more time to leave the area during the spraying operation.
Spray drift can be minimized by using application equipment with low drift characteristics, replacing inappropriate or worn nozzles, using appropriate pressure and volume for the chosen nozzle, and adding a drift control agent. Ultra-low-volume sprays are more likely to cause drift than low pressure sprays. Of course, avoid spraymg when the wind is blowing faster than 8 mph.
Organophosphate insecticides are poisonous to wildlife, and their effects are additive. Thus, multiple exposure to these insecticides increases their harmful effects. Wildlife deaths are more likely to occur when these insecticides are applied at intervals of less than 10 days.
To reduce danger to wildlife from liquid insecticides:
An alternative to treating fields with at-planting systemic insecticides is to scout fields for thrips and leafhoppers. This IPM practice can help to reduce costs without sacrificing yields. If a field has reached economic thresholds for pests, select a foliar insecticide that is not highly toxic to wildlife.
Table 1. Toxicity of Insecticides and Nematicides Used on Peanuts to Birds, Mammals, and Fish __________________________________________________________ Pesticide (Brand Name) Birds Mammals Fish __________________________________________________________ acephate (Orthene) M L L aldicarb (Temik) Hc H EH carbaryl (Sevin) L L H chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) H L EH diazinon Hc M EH disulfoton (Di-syston) Hc H H esfenvalerate (Asana XL) L L EH ethoprop (Mocap) Hc M H fenamiphos (Nemacur) Hc H EH fonofos (Dyfonate) H H EH malathion L L EH methomyl (Lannate) H H H phorate (Thimet) Hc H EH propargite (Comite, Omite) L L H ________________________________________________________ Wildlife hazard is based on the following toxicities: H(highly toxic) = LD50 less than 30 mg/kg and/or LC50 less than 500 ppm. M(moderately toxic = LD50 > 30 mg/kg and <100 mg/kg and/or LC50 > 500 and < 1000 ppm. L(low toxicity) = LD50 > 100 mg/kg and LC50 > 1000 ppm. NT(Not toxic) Fish 96-hour LC50 toxicities are as follows: EH(Extremely toxic) less than 0.1 ppm H(Highly toxic) 0.1 to 1.0 ppm M(Moderately toxic) 1 to 10 ppm L(Low toxicity) greater than 10 ppm To convert fish toxicities to pounds of active ingredient per acre-foot of water, multiply by 2.7. c= active ingredient (not necessarily a specific product) has caused wildlife deaths. Table 2.Hazard of Insecticides Used on Peanuts to Wildlife. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Wildlife Insect Insecticide (Brand Name) hazard Kills Comments ________________________________________________________________________________________ Armyworm acephate (Orthene) moderate no See corn earworm methomyl (Lannate) moderate no comments. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Beet armyworm esfenvalerate(Asana XL) low no Asana provides only fair methomyl (Lannate) moderate no control.(see publication AG-331.) Applying Lannate by air increases hazard to high. ________________________________________________________________________________________ corn earworm carbaryl (Sevin) low no Sevin and Asana XL are esfenvalerate(Asana XL) low no safer for wildlife. Orthene acephate (Orthene) moderate no is safer than Lannate, methomyl (Lannate) moderate no which is very toxic to wildlife. ________________________________________________________________________________________ cutworm carbaryl(Sevin) low no Diazinon is toxic to birds esfenvalerate(Asana XL) low no and fish. Broadcasting diazinon 14G high yes granules increases wildlife hazard. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Leafhoppers carbaryl(Sevin) low no Asana XL it extremely esfenvalerate(Asana XL) low no toxic to fish. Do not spray malathion low no where drift may enter acephate (Orthene) moderate no ponds. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Lesser chlorpyrifos 4EC(Lorsban) low no Dyfonate is highly toxic to cornstalk chlorpyrifos 15G(Lorsban) moderate no birds. Use of Lorsban EC borer fonofos 20G (Dyfonate) high no reduces hazard. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Southern corn chlorpyrifos 15G moderate no Fully incorporate all rootworm fonofos 10,2OG (Dyfonate) moderate no granules. Broadcasting ethoprop 10, 15G (Mocap) high yes granules increases phorate 15G (Thimet) high yes wildlife hazard. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Spider mites propargite (Omite, Comite)low no Propargite is toxic to fish. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Thrips cabaryl (Sevin) low no malathion low no acephate (Orthene) moderate no ________________________________________________________________________________________ Velvetbean carbaryl (Sevin) low no See above. Asana XL is caterpillar esfenvalerate (Asana XL) low no toxic to fish and aquatic acephate (Orthene) moderate no invertebrates. methomyt (Lannate) moderate no ________________________________________________________________________________________ Wildlife hazards high indicates possible wildlife deaths; moderate indicates possible wildlife sickness, deaths less likely; low indicates sickness unlikely. Kills yes indicates wildlife deaths due to use of the insecticide (active ingredient) have been reported. no indicates wildlife deaths have not been reported when pesticide is used according to label.
Benlate can reduce earthworm populations, which could indirectly affect some bird and mammal populations. Thiophanate-methyl (Topsin) may also reduce beneficial soil organisms.
The following recommendations may help to reduce the potential for disease in peanuts. Thus, the need for fungicides and the number of applications required per season can be reduced by:
When habitats are reduced on a farm, there is a tremendous effect on the wildlife populations there. Wildlife need food and cover to survive. Wildlife populations decline when herbicides or mechanical methods are used to maintain "clean" fencerows, ditch banks, and field borders. These strip habitats provide wildlife valuable cover for nesting, brood rearing, and escaping from predators. Many species of wildlife, including quail and rabbits, benefit from strip habitats. Where possible, consider maintaining these areas in wildlife cover. Protect these areas from herbicides and mow less frequently. Consider mowing filter strips and ditch banks and other noncrop areas only once per year in early spring. Another approach is to mow alternate sides of strip habitats every other year. This provides year-round cover for wildlife.
Table 3. Hazard of Nematicides to Wildlife ______________________________________________________________________________ Wildlife Chemical (Brand Name) hazard Kills Comments _______________________________________________________________________________ metam sodium (Vapam) low no No reports of wildlife problems associated with use. _______________________________________________________________________________ 1-3 dichloro-propene low no See above. (Telone II) _______________________________________________________________________________ 1-3 dichloro-propene + low no See above. methyl isothiocyanate (Vodex) _______________________________________________________________________________ 1-3 dichloro-propene + low no See above. choropicrin (Telone Cl7) _______________________________________________________________________________ aldicarb 15G (Temik) high yes Temik granules exposed on soil surface are a hazard. Fully incorporating granules reduces hazard. Disk in spilled granules at row ends. ________________________________________________________________________________ fenamiphos 15G or high yes Nemacur is very toxic to wildlife. 3EC (Nemacur) Exposed granules are a hazard. Full incorporation reduces hazard. Granules spilled at row ends should be incorporated. ________________________________________________________________________________ Wildlife hazards high indicates possible wildlife deaths; moderate indicates possible wildlife sickness, deaths less likely; low indicates sickness unlikely. Kills yes indicates wildlife deaths due to use of the insecticide (active ingredient) have been reported. no indicates wildlife deaths have not been reported when pesticide is used according to label. Table 4. Hazard of Southern Stem Rot Treatments to Wildlife _______________________________________________________________________ Wildlife Treatment (Brand Name) hazard Kills Comments _______________________________________________________________________ PCNB (Terraclor) low no PCNB is only slightly toxic to birds and mammals. _______________________________________________________________________ carboxin (Vitavax) low no Slight oral toxicity to wildlife. _______________________________________________________________________ PCNB + chlorpyrifos moderate no Granules exposed on soil (Lorsban) surface are a hazard to birds. Disk under spilled granules at row ends. ________________________________________________________________________ chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) moderate no See above. ________________________________________________________________________ PCNB + fonofos (Dyfonate) high no Fonofos is highly toxic to birds. Granules exposed on soil are a hazard. Incorporate spilled granules. ________________________________________________________________________ PCNB + ethoprop (Mocap) high yes Ethoprop is highly toxic to birds. Granules exposed on soil surface are a hazard. ________________________________________________________________________ Wildlife hazards high indicates possible wildlife deaths; moderate indicates possible wildlife sickness, deaths less likely; low indicates sickness unlikely. Kills yes indicates wildlife deaths due to use of the insecticide (active ingredient) have been reported. no indicates wildlife deaths have not been reported when pesticide is used according to label.For further information on this topic, contact your county Extension Service agent.