Pesticide Note

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
North Carolina State University



Pesticide Note Number 1
ENT/pia-1
August 1992

Pesticides: Extension and Research Programs in North Carolina



Stephen J. Toth, Jr., Extension Pesticide Impact Assessment Specialist
John H. Wilson, Extension Pesticide Education Specialist
T. J. Sheets, Professor Emeritus, Department of Toxicology
Peter T. Bromley, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Paul James, M.D., East Carolina School of Medicine #
H. Michael Linker, Extension Integrated Pest Management Specialist
Judieth E. Mock, Department Extension Leader, Human Environment
P. Sterling Southern, Department Extension Leader, Entomology
Mary Beth St. Clair, Extension Toxicology Specialist ##

# Current address: University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Department of Family Medicine, Erie County Medical Center, 462 Grider Street, NY 14215

## Current address: University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, P. O. Box 670576, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0576


Caution!
The information and recommendations in this Note were developed for North Carolina and may not apply in other areas.




Pesticide Applicator Certification Program

Sixteen 2-day certification/licensing schools are held annually by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service for commercial pesticide applicators, public operators and dealers seeking pesticide licenses. In North Carolina, commercial pesticide applicators must be certified to buy or apply any pesticide and dealers must be licensed to sell restricted use pesticides. Certified commercial applicators and dealers must be recertified every 5 years. Recertification requirements range from 3 to 10 credit hours per 5 year period, depending on the licensing specialty (Ornamental & Turf, Structural, etc.). Credits can be earned by attending professional meetings approved by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture (NCDA). Over three hundred recertification opportunities are offered annually across the state. Private pesticide applicators (i.e., farmers) must also meet certification and recertification requirements in North Carolina. For initial certification, farmers can choose a 4-hour classroom program, independent programmed instruction, or take a test administered by the NCDA. For recertification, farmers must participate in a 2-hour recertification program every 3 years or pass a recertification test given by the NCDA. For more information on pesticide certification/recertification programs in North Carolina, contact your local county Cooperative Extension Service center or John H. Wilson, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7609, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-3113.

Pesticide Schools

The North Carolina State University (NCSU) College of Agriculture and Life Sciences sponsors the annual Crop Protection School in conjunction with the meeting of the Pesticide Association of North Carolina. At this conference, NCSU faculty and staff discuss problems, research and recommendations in the areas of pest management and pesticide application with manufacturers, formulators, dealers, salesmen, professional agricultural workers and farm managers. Pesticide recertification credits can be earned at the 2-day school. The Pest Control Technicians School is sponsored in association with the North Carolina Pest ControlAssociation. The 3-day school offers pest control technicians the latest information on pests, pesticide materials, and methods of application. Pesticide recertification credits can be earned by attending the school. A separate program during the school provides instruction for Structural Pest Control certification. For more information on the Crop Protection School, contact John H. Wilson, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7609, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-3113. For more information on the Pest Control Technicians School, contact Michael G. Waldvogel, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-2703.

North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, revised and published annually by the NCSU College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, contains recommendations for chemical control of agricultural, household and other pests. Prepared by Extension specialists and researchers from several departments at NCSU, these recommendations are based upon information provided on manufacturers' product labels and performance of pesticide chemicals in field trials. The manual also includes useful instructions on pesticide application and safety, and recommendations for fertilizer use. For further information, contact the Publications Office, North Carolina State University, Box 7603, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-3173.

Pesticide Impact Assessment Program

The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) established the National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program (NAPIAP) in 1976 for the purpose of providing the most objective and accurate data available for defining and evaluating benefits and risks of selected pesticides having critical agricultural and forestry uses. The NAPIAP uses data on the uses and benefits of pesticides furnished by Extension specialists and researchers in North Carolina to support the continuation of federal pesticide registrations important for production of agricultural crops. Additional data needed to evaluate the benefits of registered pesticides and the impact of these chemicals on the environment are generated by short-term research projects conducted in the state with funding from the NAPIAP. The Pesticide Impact Assessment Program in North Carolina also provides up-to-date label information from pesticide products registered with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and North Carolina Department of Agriculture via the National Pesticide Information Retrieval System. For further information, contact Stephen J. Toth, Jr., Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-2703.

Minor Uses of Pesticides: The IR-4 Program

Potential sales of pesticides for pest control on fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs and other minor crops are often so small that pesticide manufacturers are not willing to devote the time and resources necessary to obtain label clearances for these crops. The Interregional Project 4 (IR-4), a national program involving the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, USDA, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Food and Drug Administration, and pesticide manufacturers, coordinates the development of residue data to support tolerances for pesticide residues on minor crops. IR-4 plays a major role in obtaining label clearances for minor uses of pesticides. North Carolina State University faculty and staff participate actively in this program, helping to provide safe, effective methods of pest control on minor crops in the state. For further information, contact Ross B. Leidy, Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Box 8604, Raleigh, NC 27607, Telephone: 919/515-3391.

Special Local Need Registrations and Exemptions

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, as amended, contains provisions for the registration of pesticides for special local needs and for the issuance of exemptions to normal registration procedures to allow nonregistered uses of pesticides in special or crisis situations. North Carolina State University assists the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, the state agency responsible for regulation of pesticides, by providing data relevant to Special Local Need registrations and Special and Crisis exemptions and helping to determine when pest outbreaks are serious enough that Special and Crisis exemptions are needed. For further information, contact Thomas J. Monaco, Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7609, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-3131.

Pesticide Residue and Analytical Toxicology Laboratory

The Pesticide Residue and Analytical Toxicology Laboratory is a facility of the Department of Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University. The primary responsibility of the laboratory is to provide analytical support for research on pesticide residues in food, feeds, soil, water, and other environmental components. Costs of performing residue analyses prohibit acceptance, on a routine basis, of samples that are not a part of the planned research program. However, the laboratory contributes significantly to many research projects which benefit the citizens of North Carolina. For further information, contact Ross B. Leidy, Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Box 8604, Raleigh, NC 27607, Telephone: 919/515-3391.

Integrated Pest Management Program

The U. S. Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with the land- grant universities, has established integrated pest management (IPM) programs in all of the states. The purpose of the IPM programs is to develop and promote methods for controlling pests with minimal pesticide use. IPM blends cultural, physical, and biological pest control methods into a cohesive program to maintain pest levels below economically damaging levels. Row crops, horticultural crops, livestock and poultry are included in the program. The Extension IPM program in North Carolina conducts training for Extension agents, farmers, agribusiness professionals, and poultry industry fieldmen. On-farm demonstrations are conducted in counties to show producers how IPM methods are implemented and exhibit the results in actual field situations. In addition, scouting schools, manuals, computer software, slide sets, and video tapes are used to support IPM programs. For further information, contact H. Michael Linker, Box 7620, Department of Crop Science, N. C. State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/ 515-5644.

Protective Clothing: Selection and Care

To inform pesticide applicators, agricultural workers and their families about the selection, use and care of clothing that can provide protection from pesticide exposure, Cooperative Extension Service Home Economics Specialists, in conjunction with the Pesticide Education Specialist, produce a variety of educational materials. Fact sheets, publications, exhibits, and audiovisual materials provide information on selection and use of protective clothing for applying pesticides, and on appropriate techniques for handling and laundering pesticide-soiled clothing. For further information, contact Judy Mock or Harriet Jennings, Department of Home Economics, North Carolina State University, Box 7605, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-2770.

Agromedicine Program

The Agromedicine Program was established through a cooperative agreement between the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, the North Carolina State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the East Carolina University School of Medicine to promote safe, healthy and efficient food production methods while enhancing the quality of life of North Carolina citizens. A special interest of the Agromedicine Program is the acute and chronic health effects of pesticide exposure. For further information, contact Ernest Hodgson, Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Box 7633, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-5295.

Toxicology Program

A Cooperative Extension Service Specialist in the Department of Toxicology at North Carolina State University is available as a resource for information on the toxicity associated with the various classes of agricultural and other chemicals. Questions concerning pesticides, dioxin (TCDD), pool disinfectants, solvents (e.g., benzene), and lead are routinely directed to the Department of Toxicology. Educational materials on the human health effects of pesticides, pesticide residues in food, and the risk assessment process have been prepared for dissemination to the Cooperative Extension Service centers and the public. Faculty of the Toxicology Department at NCSU also participate in the Agromedicine Program, a collaborative effort with the East Carolina University School of Medicine to prevent agriculture-related injuries. For further information, contact Mary Beth St. Clair, Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Box 7633, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-5296.

Pesticides and Wildlife

The effects of pesticide use on non-target wildlife populations has concerned wildlife enthusiasts for decades. Pesticide use can harm wildlife populations directly through mortality, or indirectly by reducing food or cover. Although newer pesticides are generally safer, some pesticides used in North Carolina have been involved in wildlife die-off incidents. Thus, farmers need reliable information on pest management practices that will minimize the potential impacts of pesticides on wildlife. To address this need, the Department of Zoology at North Carolina State University and the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service publish crop- specific fact sheets. Since many aspects of the effects of pesticide use on wildlife are unknown or undocumented, research is conducted on the effects of typical farm practices, including pesticide use, on the bobwhite quail. For further information, contact Peter T. Bromley, Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Box 7646, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515- 7587.

Pesticides and Water Quality

The residents of North Carolina, like most Americans, are concerned about the quality of their ground and surface waters. In response to this concern, the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service has adopted water quality as a major program initiative. Four components of the water quality initiative are: waste management and utilization, residential water quality, nonpoint source water pollution control, and public policy. The latter three components address the prevention of pesticide contamination of water. Educational programs are directed at pesticide users (farm and nonfarm), pesticide dealers, well water users, and others. The emphases of these educational programs are on eliminating unnecessary pesticide use, proper selection and handling of pesticides, well-head protection, and soil and water management. The North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service works closely with local, state, and federal agencies in these efforts. For further information, contact Frank J. Humenik, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695, Telephone: 919/515-2675.




Published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.


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Web page last modified on August 14, 1996 by Stephen J. Toth, Jr.