R. S. Cowles; M. E. Montgomery; C.A.S.-J. Cheah. 2006, vol. 99, no. 4,
pp. 1258 - 1267 Activity and
Residues of Imidacloprid Applied to Soil and Tree Trunks to Control Hemlock
Woolly Adelgid in Forests
We studied imidacloprid application methods and timing to control the hemlock woolly adelgid in forests. The methods compared were 1) soil injection near the trunk; 2) soil injection dispersed throughout the area under the canopy; 3) soil drench near the base of the trunk; and trunk injection with the 4) Arborjet, 5) Wedgle, and 6) Mauget systems. Relative to the untreated control trees, all the soil applications resulted in population reductions, but none of the trunk injections resulted in reductions. Fall and spring treatment efficacy did not differ. Reductions by the soil treatments were between 50 and 100% (avg 80%) by the first fall and 83-100% (avg 98.5%) by the second fall. Analysis of imidacloprid residues found residues in sap, needles, and twigs 1 mo to 3-yr after application. A high degree of suppression of the adelgid on forest trees was associated with residues in hemlock tissue >120 ppb 2 yr after soil treatment. Although precise relationships between residues and efficacy are elusive, it is clear that soil application of imidacloprid resulted in chronic residues of imidacloprid in tissues and suppression of adelgid populations for >2 yr.
David H. Oi; Faith M. Oi. Journal of Economic Entomology.
2006, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1739 - 1748
Speed of Efficacy and Delayed Toxicity Characteristics of Fast-Acting Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Baits
Efficacy and speed of action of fire ant baits that claim fast control of colonies were compared with a standard bait. More than 85% of red imported fire ant laboratory colonies provided bait containing the active ingredient indoxacarb died within 3 d, and all colonies were dead in 6 d. Standard bait containing hydramethylnon (eg. Amdro) resulted in death of 60% of the colonies in 9 d. Bait containing spinosad did not cause colony death. Under field conditions, one-half of the areas treated with the indoxacarb bait did not have any active fire ant nests within 3 d, whereas 11 d was needed to reach the same level of control with the hydramethylnon bait. Spinosad had a maximum of 17% of the treated areas without nests after 3 d. The delay in death of fire ant adults treated in the laboratory with the indoxacarb and spinosad baits was shorter than the standard hydramethylnon bait, which had mortality similar to the traditional delayed toxicity criterion. Indoxacarb caused mortality of 57% at 24 h and 100% at 48 h; however, visual symptoms of toxicity were not readily observed for at least 8 h before the abrupt increase in death. Spinosad caused 96% mortality by 24 h, and initial mortality became apparent at 4 h. Time required for death of 15% of a treated population (LT15) of spinosad, indoxacarb, and hydramethylnon was 3, 9, and 16 h, respectively. Delayed toxicity characteristics of the fast-acting indoxacarb bait may be useful for the development of other fast-acting ant baits.
Christopher J. Fettig et al. Journal of Economic Entomology.
2006, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1691 - 1698
Effectiveness of Bifenthrin (Onyx) and Carbaryl (Sevin SL) for Protecting Individual, High-Value Conifers from Bark Beetle Attack in the Western US
Trees, such as those located in residential, recreational, or administrative sites, are particularly susceptible to bark beetle attack as a result of increased amounts of stress associated with drought, soil compaction, mechanical injury, or vandalism. Tree losses in these unique environments generally have a substantial impact. In this study, authors assess the efficacy of bifenthrin (Onyx) and carbaryl (Sevin SL) for protecting various pines from various bark beetles. Sevin SL (2.0%) was effective for protecting P. ponderosa, P. contorta, and P. monophylla for two field seasons. Estimates of efficacy could not be made during the second field season in P. edulis and P. engelmannii due to insufficient mortality in untreated, baited control trees. Two field seasons of efficacy was demonstrated in P. ponderosa/D. brevicomis and P. monophylla for 0.06% Onyx. We conclude that Onyx is an effective individual tree protection tool, but repeated annual applications may be required in some systems if multiyear control is desired.
Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. Fire ants consumed 100% of the eggs offered. Ground beetles were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when removed from their spittlemasses. Fire ants and tiger beetles caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. Fireants and tiger beetles killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa spiders are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about twolined spittlebugs and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass.
D.W. Held, P. Goniska, & D. Potter. 2003 Jour. Econ. Ent. Vol 96,
Evaluating Companion Planting and Non-host Masking Odors for Protecting Roses from the Japanese Beetle
Companion planting of certain herbs and use of mess bags did not reduce damage to rose foliage. Control plants had significantly less damage than the treatments.
Eric P. Benson, Patricia A. Zungoli, and Melissa B. Riley. 2003 Jour.
Econ. Ent. Vol 96, No 1.
Effects of Contaminants on Bait Acceptance by Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Three commonly used fire ant baits, Amdro, Ascend, and Maxforce, were exposed to potential, volatile contaminants. The contaminants included the insecticides Orthene Fire Ant Killer, Tempo 2, cigarette smoke, gasoline and others. These results indicate that volatile insecticides and products
can contaminate fire ant baits. Some insecticides and products, such as gasoline, can significantly affect bait palatability and may adversely impact control.
Y. Q. Tang, A. A. Weathersbee, III, and R. T. Mayer. 2002. Envir. Ent.
Vol.31, No.1. p.172-176.
Effect of Neem Seed Extract on the Brown Citrus Aphid and its Parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera:Aphidiidae) Spraying neem extract (11?180 ppm AZ) onto potted citrus plants in the greenhouse significantly reduced aphids 20?100%, while control aphid populations increased 950% 7 d after treatment. Application of the extract had little impact on the survival of adult parasitoids and developing parasitoids within aphids because parasite emergences were similar between treated and untreated parasitized aphids. These results indicate that neem extract may be compatible with integrated pest management programs in citrus and should be evaluated for field efficacy.
Ellis, Donna, Richard McAvoy et al. 2001. Florida Entomologist. Vol.
84. No. 2. p.215-221.--Evaluation of Serangium parcesetosusm (Coleoptera:
Coccinellidae) for Biological Control of Bemesia argentifolii (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae) on Poinsettia
Contol of Silverleaf whitefly in greenhouse Poinsettia using biological control agents has been unreliable. This coccinellid shows great promise. Our data suggest that Serangium may work well in a multiple species biological control program on whiteflies on Poinsettia in greenhouses. However, further study is needed on interspecies interactions.
Different amounts of imidacloprid were applied
by subirrigation to poinsettias in the greenhouse. Uptake was measured,
as was whitefly infestation. All imidacloprid treatments resulted in a
significant decrease in both the survival of adult whiteflies and number
of immature whiteflies on the plants. Subirrigation treatments
resulted in better control of adult and immature whiteflies than drench
application. Withholding water for 2-4 days prior to application
improved control of immature whiteflies. This indicates that the
application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by subirrigation is a practical
and efficient method to control silverleaf whiteflies.
In 1996, Twenty-eight greenhouse screening materials
were compared for air flow resistance, exclusion of silverleaf whitefly
and exclusion of thrips. Those products with 90%+ efficacy for exclusion
for either insect were: BugBed 123, No-Thrips, BugBed 110UV, Econonet
S, BugBed 85, Econet T, Pak 52x52, and Protex. Others are listed.
In Kentucky, woody stem galls on pin oak , Quercus
palustris, formed by the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera, were
found to be infested by the Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula,
as heavily as 12-15% in 2-3 year old stem galls.
Laboratory biossays were conducted using
strain and halofenozide against both overwintered and nonoverwintered 3rd
instars of Japanese beetle. Imidacloprid was used as a standard.
Larval mortality was evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 days. Neither insecticide
treatment surpassed 60% mortality, while both rates of nematodes
resulted in 100% mortality.
Field experiments were conducted to measure the
effects of four commonly used turfgrass insecticides (isofenphos,
diazinon, imidacloprid, halofenozide) on white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and ant predators of white grub eggs. Isofenphos and diazinon significantly reduced both ant numbers and white grub egg predation, whereas (Merit) and a single halofenozide (Mach 2) treatment did not significantly impact either measurement. A second halofenozide treatment significantly reduced white grub egg predation. Isofenphos and diazinon were ineffective at controlling Japanese beetle grubs when applied in June but were highly efficacious when applied in August. Evidence of enhanced biodegradation was found in plots that received both June and August applications of diazinon. Both June and August applications of imidacloprid and halofenozide provided good control of white grubs.
The gall wasp C.c. is a cynipid with alternating
generations that produce large, woody stem galls and tiny blister-like
leaf galls on pin oak, Quercus palustris. Three approaches
at reducing galls were tested. First were sprays with bifenthrin or chlorpyrifos
in late March. Second was concentrate solutions of abamectin, imidacloprid
or bidrin injected into sapwood. Third was systemic acephate, abamectin,
dimethoate, or imidacloprid sprayed at leaf expansion. Though some
treatments affected gall inhabitants. Bifenthrin sprays at bud break provided
the greatest reduction in new leaf galls. This study suggests that gall
wasp outbreaks are unlikely to be controlled by a single treatment, regardless
of application method.
Management of lawns that promotes conditions detrimental
to the development of insect pests may represent a valuable environmentally
benign turfgrass management strategy. In the cool-humid region of Quebec,
Canada, we investaged 45 lawns infested with hairy chinch bug, Blissusleucopterushirtus.
Chinchbug population desnity was associated positively with abundance of
periennial ryegrass. [snip] No significant relationship was found between
thatch thickness and patterns of chinch bug abundance and distribution.
These results suggest that management of lawns to respectively increase
and decrease abundance of creeping bentgrass and perennial ryegrass could
faciliate control of hairy chinch bug populations in cool-humid regions.
The parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditishermaphrodita occurs naturally in the UK, where it has been developed as a commercial control for slugs. Researchers in the UK found that pest slugs can detect the presence of and avoid soil treated with these nematodes. Slugs fed and rested preferentially on the untreated halves of boxes of soil during a 12-day period. One slug species tested avoided soil treated with 38 nematodes/cm2 -- which is similar to the recommended rate for field application --but was not repelled at lower nematode densities. Nematode movement in the soil in the boxes was minimal.
It may be possible to protect certain crops from slug damage by treating the area immediately around the sensitive plants with a narrow band of nematodes. This would deter slug feeding using far fewer nematodes than would be necessary for slug control by treating the entire soil surface. It is suggested this would be most effective for crops grown in widely spaced rows. Although the nematode is not currently commercially available in the U.S., efforts are being made to have it approved for commercial use here.