Egg -- The bright yellow orange, oblong egg is pointed at one end and measures about 1 mm long. Red and black areas develop before the egg hatches.
Nymphs -- The wingless nymph resembles the adult in shape but is slightly smaller. Enveloped in a white, frothy mass, this red-eyed immature form may be yellow, orange, or white with a brown head.
Host Plants -- This spittlebug feeds on many crops, ornamentals, and weeds in addition to turf grasses. Ornamental and weedy grass hosts include Coastal bermudagrass, St. Augustine, centipede, pangola, bahia, rye, crab, Johnson, and orchard grasses. Plants commonly infested by adults are holly, redbud, aster, gerbera, blackberry, pea, peach, honeysuckle, morning glory, and most small grain crops.
Damage -- Spittlebugs are rarely a problem on well-managed turf. Both nymphs and adults extract plant juices through their needle-like mouthparts. Such feeding by large numbers of spittlebugs may kill, wither, or check the growth of turf grasses.
Life History -- Twolined spittlebugs overwinter as eggs in hollow stems, behind leaf sheaths, or among plant debris. Emerging in the spring, the nymphs seek sheltered, humid, hiding places among plants and begin feeding. Soon they exude a white, frothy "spittle" mass which protects them from natural enemies and desiccation. After feeding for at least a month and developing through four instars, nymphs become adults. Most active in early morning, spittlebugs spend the warmer hours of the day hiding deep in the grass. Adults live about 23 days and females spend the last 2 weeks of this period depositing eggs. Hatching occurs about two weeks later. Two generations occur annually in North Carolina.